We need an appropriate antimicrobial test standard for indoor touch surfaces

Concerned by HCAIs (infections acquired during healthcare) and Antimicrobial Resistance?

Here’s something you should know…

Use of effective antimicrobial surfaces, as a simple supplement to good hand hygiene and cleaning regimes, has been proven to reduce not only microbial bioburden on frequently-touched surfaces but also patient infection rates.

In healthcare, fewer infections mean better healthcare efficiency (clinical cost-savings and freed-up beds) and improved patient outcomes.

Thus far, no major surprises… but what about this?
Not all antimicrobials are equal and there is no universally-adopted standard test protocol to measure their effectiveness ‘in the field.’

How, then, can we identify and specify appropriate antimicrobial surfaces to use in construction or refurbishment projects?

Healthcare scientists and clinicians urge careful stewardship of antimicrobial agents; this includes antimicrobial surfaces as well as antibiotic drugs.

Some commonly-used antimicrobial surfaces – which work under the standard “warm and wet” test protocols* – have negligible efficacy under typical indoor conditions.**

Using such surfaces could actually aggravate the problem of antimicrobial resistance, which the WHO described in April 2015 as “the single greatest challenge in infectious disease today.”

There are appropriate tests currently available in the UK which are ready to be used.***

Until we agree an appropriate test standard for antimicrobial efficacy – relevant to touch surfaces under typical indoor conditions – needless suffering will continue and we will deny ourselves a simple yet effective measure that improves healthcare and helps combat antimicrobial resistance.

Regulators such as the US EPA and the OECD are aware of this. The OECD Working Group under the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), which represents the interests of a number of countries and regions, has proposed a tiered system approach with Tier One test methods providing proof of principle and Tier Two methods more closely representing in-use environmental conditions.

For a more comprehensive explanation, with details of efficacy tests performed on Antimicrobial Copper,  visit: http://www.antimicrobialcopper.org/uk/efficacy-tests-and-standards


So, the next time a salesman or colleague talks to you about an antimicrobial surface, ask:-
a) is it able to make public health benefit claims?
b) does it work rapidly, under typical indoor conditions?
c) how does it work – does it actually destroy microbes?
d) how durable is the antimicrobial protection?
e) is use of this product likely to contribute to AMR?
f) for evidence – not claims, but test protocols and results over time
and, last but not least:

g) help raise awareness of the need for an appropriate test standard for antimicrobial efficacy under typical indoor conditions!


We welcome your suggestions: please contact us.



* JIS Z 2801 or ISO 22196 (measure microbial reduction at 24 hours exposure, under elevated temperature and saturated humidity conditions).

** Michels, H.T., Noyce, J.O. and Keevil, C.W. (2009), Effects of temperature and humidity on the efficacy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus challenged antimicrobial materials containing silver and copper. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49: 191–195. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02637.x

*** OECD is aware of the limitations of standard tests, which OECD class as Tier 1 tests.
The available tests referred to in this post constitute Tier 2 tests as per para 2 on page 8 of OECD  “GUIDANCE DOCUMENT FOR QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR EVALUATING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF POROUS AND NON-POROUS ANTIBACTERIAL TREATED MATERIALS”  ENV/JM/MONO(2014)18 dated 11th July 2014
“2. The method provides only a basic foundation for conducting tests on antimicrobial treated articles, and a second tier method must be developed to ensure an accurate assessment of antimicrobial activity. A guidance document is currently under development for tier 2 testing, i.e. laboratory-based tests to substantiate claims made for the article with test conditions that simulate intended use, durability and compatibility of the article – provided that the protocol describes the claim being supported in an adequate manner. Further, Tier 2 testing protocols will also accommodate use of shorter contact times (e.g. 2h) and inoculum dried on treated surfaces.”
See http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=ENV/JM/MONO(2014)18&doclanguage=en

Recent Publications & Papers

Interest in (and research into) the real-world efficacy and kill mechanisms of metallic copper surfaces against microbes (bacteria, viruses, yeasts and fungi) is accumulating.

Here are some recent papers for you:


Michels HT, Keevil CW, Salgado CD, Schmidt MG. 2015. From Laboratory Research to a Clinical Trial: Copper Alloy Surfaces Kill Bacteria and Reduce Hospital-Acquired Infections HERD, October 2015 vol. 9 no. 1 64-79,

This paper, published in HERD, helps summarise and explain the mechanisms, efficacy and benefits of copper & copper-alloy touch surfaces (collectively called “Antimicrobial Copper”).
It is open-access, so you can download the full pdf without cost.


Warnes SL, Little ZR, Keevil CW. 2015. Human coronavirus 229E remains infectious on common touch surface materials. mBio 6(6):e01697-15. doi:10.1128/mBio.01697-15.

Animal coronaviruses that ‘host jump’ to humans, such as SARS and MERS, result in severe infections with high mortality. The Southampton researchers found that a closely-related human coronavirus – 229E – can remain infectious on common surface materials for several days, but is rapidly destroyed on copper.


Hans M, Mathews S, Mücklich F, Solioz M. 2015. Physicochemical properties of copper important for its antibacterial activity and development of a unified model. Biointerphases 11, 018902 (2016); doi: 10.1116/1.4935853

Abstract: Contact killing is a novel term describing the killing of bacteria when they come in contact with metallic copper or copper-containing alloys. In recent years, the mechanism of contact killing has received much attention and many mechanistic details are available.
The authors here review some of these mechanistic aspects with a focus on the critical physicochemical properties of copper which make it antibacterial. Known mechanisms of contact killing are set in context to ionic, corrosive, and physical properties of copper.
The analysis reveals that the oxidation behavior of copper, paired with the solubility properties of copper oxides, are the key factors which make metallic copper antibacterial. The concept advanced here explains the unique position of copper as an antibacterial metal. Based on our model, novel design criteria for metallic antibacterial materials may be derived.

Meyer, T.J. 2015. Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering. Vol:9, No:3.

Abstract: For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing in Escherichia coli.
In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation.
Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference in loss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.


These papers are also recommended:


Taylor M, Chaplin S. 2013. The Economic Assessment of an Environmental Intervention: Discrete Deployment of Copper for Infection Control in ICUs. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2013, 2(Suppl1):P368

This paper is the York Health Economics Consortium research into the cost-effectiveness and payback of copper touch surfaces. Read more, with a worked example for a UK 20 bed ICU, in this pdf document YHEC Business Case (CDA Pub 212)

More information on CDA website antimicrobialcopper.org http://www.antimicrobialcopper.org/uk/the-business-case


Warnes SL, Keevil CW. 2011. Mechanism of copper surface toxicity in Vancomycin-resistant enterococci following wet or dry surface contact. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Sept. 2011. pp. 6049–6059.

Abstract: Contaminated touch surfaces have been implicated in the spread of hospital-acquired infections, and the use of biocidal surfaces could help to reduce this cross-contamination.
In a previous study we reported the death of aqueous inocula of pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium isolates, simulating fomite surface contamination, in 1 h on copper alloys, compared to survival for months on stainless steel.
In our current study we observed an even faster kill of over a 6-log reduction of viable enterococci in less than 10 min on copper alloys with a “dry” inoculum equivalent to touch contamination. We investigated the effect of copper(I) and copper(II) chelation and the quenching of reactive oxygen species on cell viability assessed by culture and their effects on genomic DNA, membrane potential, and respiration in situ on metal surfaces.
We propose that copper surface toxicity for enterococci involves the direct or indirect action of released copper ionic species and the generation of superoxide, resulting in arrested respiration and DNA breakdown as the first stages of cell death. The generation of hydroxyl radicals by the Fenton reaction does not appear to be the dominant instrument of DNA damage. The bacterial membrane potential is unaffected in the early stages of wet and dry surface contact, suggesting that the membrane is not compromised until after cell death.
These results also highlight the importance of correct surface cleaning protocols to perpetuate copper ion release and prevent the chelation of ions by contaminants, which could reduce the efficacy of the surface.

Warnes, S.L. et al. 2012.  Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes on abiotic touch surfaces: implications for public health.  MBio 2012 Nov; 3(6):e00489-12. DOI:10.1128/mBio.00489-12.

“This study demonstrated that HGT readily occurs on dry touch surfaces such as stainless steel, providing a potentially important route for multidrug resistance emergence and dissemination in public buildings and transportation systems if surfaces are not regularly and efficiently cleaned…. The use of copper alloys in clinical and community settings could help reduce infection spread and also reduce the incidence of horizontal transmission genes conferring drug resistance, virulence, and pathogenesis and expression efficiency.”

Further references:

CDA publication 196 “Reducing the Risk of HCAIs” outlines the research and key results; it also contains a useful structured bibliography of references. You can download it here: http://www.antimicrobialcopper.org/sites/default/files/upload/Media-library/Files/PDFs/UK/Brochures/pub-196-reducing-risk-healthcare-infections.pdf

Further scientific references are available on CDA website antimicrobialcopper.org at  http://www.antimicrobialcopper.org/uk/scientific-references

Forthcoming Events

Interested in learning more about Antimicrobial Copper, or seeing products on show?


Meet us at these public events:


13th – 14th October 2016, Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance, Radisson Blu hotel, Manchester Airport (S, P)

Andrew Cross will be presenting on the copper’s role in improving healthcare efficiency by reducing infection spread via touch surfaces, and that copper’s rapid destruction of plasmids prevents Horizontal Gene Transfer from taking place on copper surfaces.

A conference poster on copper touch surfaces will also be displayed, with references to supporting evidence.

“Breaking the chain of infection – How copper can help tackle Antimicrobial Resistance”
14th October, 11:30-12:05 , Keynote Forum, Meeting Room 105

Antibiotics gave a miraculous boost to healthcare efficiency, saving lives and improving outcomes. But Antimicrobial Resistance (“AMR”) is narrowing our drug-based treatment options to the point where certain infections won’t respond to even our “last resort” antibiotics.

Prevention of infection has taken centre stage once again, with renewed focus on cleaning and hand hygiene. However, these are time-consuming and human behaviour is hard to change.

Healthcare Associated Infections (“HCAIs”) remain prevalent, with significant impact on clinical resources and patient safety. Novel no-touch disinfection systems have been developed, with some benefit but drawbacks include cost and room downtime.

This presentation explores the evidence relating to touch surfaces made from metallic copper and copper-alloys (“Antimicrobial Copper”). Particular focus is paid to the evidence of in-situ antimicrobial efficacy under real life conditions in busy clinical settings.

The robust evidence of dramatically reduced microbial bioburden on copper surfaces is supported by laboratory testing confirming rapid destruction of pathogens’ genomic material (including plasmids) on copper. Horizontal Gene Transfer, a key mechanism in the development of AMR, which occurs on standard touch surfaces, does not take place on copper ones.

Patient outcome studies and cost-benefit research undertaken by York Health Economics Consortium indicate that installing Antimicrobial Copper touch surfaces improves the efficiency of healthcare by significant reduction of both HCAIs and clinical costs, plus freed-up beds.

Use of clinical touch-surface made items from Antimicrobial Copper is a passive adjunctive measure to reduce antibiotic usage, improve patient safety and healthcare efficiency.


22nd–23rd November 2016, Patient First, ExCeL London
  (E, S)

Antimicrobial Copper will be exhibiting in the Infection Control section (Stand K88). Experts will be available to offer impartial information and advice on specifying and procuring products as part of a refurbishment or new build, with the goal of boosting infection control and improving patient safety. Updates on the latest scientific developments will also be available.

“The Case for Antimicrobial Copper”
22 November, 15:45–16:25, Infection Prevention and Control Theatre 1
Professor C W Keevil, Director of the Environmental Healthcare Unit in the School of Biological Sciences, will be presenting on copper’s antimicrobial efficacy and its role in infection control.

Breaking the Chain of Infection with Antimicrobial Copper”
23 November, 12:05–12:50, Infection Prevention & Control Theatre 2

Delly Dickson, Service Redesign Manager for East Sussex Healthcare NHS Trust, will present on the benefits and practicalities of an antimicrobial copper installation, based on her experiences at East Sussex Healthcare NHS Trust.

(A) = attending only, call / email us if you wish to meet there

(E) = Antimicrobial Copper products exhibited
(S) = Presentation on Antimicrobial Copper
(P) = Conference Poster displayed

Want a meeting with your team?

We also arrange private in-house presentations, for:
healthcare professionals (Clinical, IPC, Estates, and Finance)
architects/designers (including a RIBA-approved CPD seminar)
construction professionals
product manufacturers seeking to improve their range

Click thumbnail below to download a short presentation synopsis

Antimicrobial Copper Presentation Synopsis

Antimicrobial Copper @ Health+Care 2016:


Please also see the Copper Development Association’s Events page on the main Antimicrobial Copper website:


Poland leads the way in Europe

Poland’s National Centre for Quality Assessment in Healthcare (NCQA)* has revised its accreditation standards for healthcare facilities, to include Europe’s first official recommendation that antimicrobial copper touch surfaces are incorporated as an infection prevention and control measure.


Established in 1998, Poland’s Hospital Accreditation Programme encourages healthcare facilities to improve not only the quality and efficacy of services, but also patient safety standards. It provides a structured process of external assessment, carried out by the NCQA and based on measurable criteria and accepted standards. NCQA is a Polish Ministry of Health body authorised to conduct a hospital accreditation programme in Poland. In order to obtain accreditation, hospitals are required to demonstrate appropriate procedures are in place and followed.

Chapter IX ‘Infection Control’ in the NCQA accreditation standards provides guidelines concerning the prevention of pathogen transmission by touch.

The Minister of Health explained: ‘Healthcare-associated infections may be a source of substantial iatrogenic harm [undesirable or unwanted effect caused by therapeutic intervention]. It is therefore essential to limit both their number and severity.’

The new chapter states: ‘Reduction of microbial transmission should be achieved, inter alia, using frequently-touched surfaces made from metals with antimicrobial properties, such as copper, brass and bronze, as per the US Environmental Protection Agency’s registration.’

Healthcare facilities applying for NCQA accreditation may be granted between three and five points for installing antimicrobial copper surfaces, depending on the percentage of touch surfaces used.

Copper is a powerful antimicrobial with rapid, broad-spectrum efficacy against bacteria and viruses, and has been shown to kill the pathogens that cause infections, including Influenza A, E.coli and norovirus. It shares this benefit with a range of copper alloys—such as brasses and bronzes—forming a family of materials collectively called ‘antimicrobial copper’.

Touch surfaces made from solid antimicrobial copper are used in hospitals and care homes around the world to reduce the spread of infections, supporting key infection control measures such as good hand hygiene and regular surface cleaning and disinfection. This official recommendation acknowledges the significant peer-reviewed scientific evidence base for copper’s role in reducing microbial contamination and boosting patient safety.

For more information, visit www.antimicrobialcopper.org/uk.


* Locally known as Centrum Monitorowania Jakości w Ochronie Zdrowia (CMJ).

Project Opportunity: our ref 2015E12A

One of our UK NHS Trust clients is keen to fit copper door handles, push plates and light switches during their refurbishment programme over the next 5 years, across two hospital sites.
They want to standardise components across both sites. They will accept natural copper / copper-alloy colours, as part of a visual statement, so there are no alloy constraints.

The first step is a preliminary “meet the buyer” meeting on 19th Jan 2016 between 12-3pm, for the Trust team to see products and budget prices.

This invitation is open to manufacturers of Cu+ approved copper door handles, push plates and light switches.
Product robustness appropriate for harsh environments such as hospitals is essential, and grade 4 category certification to EN 1906 required for door handles.
Interested companies must have presence and support in the UK, and be able to attend a “meet the buyer” meeting held at the Trust premises on 19th January 2016.
If you and your products meet these requirements, please contact us and express your interest by 5pm on 4th Jan 2016.

To make this fair, we would suggest your price information should be provided in a sealed envelope to the Trust buyer.
Please note the limited space / numbers constraints at the event.
The Trust will be looking to see product samples and pricing, to enable a swift decision.
Product cost will naturally be a major consideration, and please note the requirement for hospital items to withstand rough handling / abuse.

No fee is imposed by ACT Surfaces Ltd to attend this event, nor will we be seeking to earn a commission on your product sales for this project.

Please email Andrew – quoting our ref 2015E12A – if you are able and willing to attend on Tues 19th Jan 2016, 12-3pm, in South East England, advising alloys and product details (please email any images & literature that we don’t already have stored in our GoogleDrive folder).

A concise ppt or pdf file of products and finishes in your range would be welcomed.
The inital focus is on door handles and light switches, however the Cu+ product listings on www.antimicrobialcopper.org will be  used to illustrate further items that may become of interest to the Trust.

We will inform the client of interested suppliers at lunchtime on Tuesday 5th January 2016.

If necessary, due to space constraints, the Trust will shortlist invited companies on the basis of submitted and publicly-available information.

If you have any questions or concerns, please ask.

We wish you a happy Christmas and successful 2016.
ACT Surfaces Ltd

——– Forwarded Email ——–

Subject: Copper fittings
Date: Mon, 21 Dec 2015 13:57:10 +0000


Following our conversation today, could you please arrange to visit us on the afternoon of 19th January 2016?

As discussed, it would be useful to bring suitable manufacturers of copper fittings with you, who will be able to bring sample items along with estimated costs.

As I explained, we have multiple refurbishment and new build projects proposed in our Estates Strategy, which we are planning to action over the next five years. We are specifically looking to review the merits of copper based door handles, door push plates and light switches with a view to installing these products as standard fittings within our upcoming projects.

I will organise a meeting room with space for up to 5 interested manufacturers to display their products, from 12.00 noon to 15.00 hrs.

I will also invite suitably interested colleagues to visit with the manufacturers and yourself, to discuss the benefits of copper fittings and examine the products on display.

This staff consultation event will contribute to our decision making around the type of alloy and colour of copper fittings to install.

I look forward to meeting with you in the New Year.


Bang on the button…

Elevator buttons as unrecognized sources of bacterial colonization in hospitals

A study published in 2014 by the University of Toronto, analysed lift buttons and toilet washroom surfaces at 3 large urban teaching hospitals located in Toronto, Ontario.
Unsurprisingly (because lift buttons are constantly used and seldom cleaned), the lift buttons had more contamination than the toilet washroom surfaces.

Read that paper here: http://www.openmedicine.ca/article/view/634/554


In a different study, it was found that a single contaminated doorknob or elevator button can spread virus rapidly through entire office buildings, hotels or hospitals.

Using bacteriophage MS-2 as a surrogate for Norovirus, Charles Gerba and his fellow researchers found that contamination of just one single doorknob or table top results in the spread of viruses throughout office buildings, hotels, and health care facilities. Within 2 to 4 hours, the virus could be detected on 40 to 60 percent of workers and visitors in the facilities and commonly touched objects.

Gerba, C. et al. 2014. University of Arizona, Tucson, presented at ASM’s 54th ICAAC, (Sept 2014) Washington DC www.icaac.org/index.php/scientific-activities/asm-live-at-icaac/asm-live-archives/328-icaac-2014-how-quickly-viruses-cancontaminate-a-building


This news article (Daily Mail, 2015) highlights research by the Centre for Superbug Solutions at the University of Queensland comparing bacterial contamination of typical office items.

Interestingly, swabs taken from the outside elevator button showed less bacteria than the buttons inside the elevator.
“Some of the germiest surfaces were a mobile phone screen, a computer keyboard and a kitchen bench, while door handles, desks and chairs were much cleaner,” Dr Elliott said.

Read more: https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2015/10/why-you-should-think-twice-about-reaching-your-phone-lunch

Copper / copper-alloy materials are very effective, especially under typical indoor conditions, at killing pathogens quickly and completely.
Bacteria (gram +ve or gram -ve), viruses, yeasts and fungi (including spores) are proven to die rapidly on copper / copper-alloy materials, with destruction of DNA (including plasmids) evident within seconds of contact on these metals.
No other material, such as silver-containing coatings, comes close to copper’s antimicrobial efficacy:  http://www.antimicrobialcopper.org/uk/antimicrobial-efficacy


See Factsheet A1384 – Antimicrobial Copper and Norovirus


*image: Antimicrobial Copper elevator button made by Dewhurst plc using KME Plus® warm silver alloy.

Simon Stevens’ call for bold action to make NHS fit for future

NHS England Chief Executive Simon Stevens today called for bold action on prevention, the redesign of care and efficiency to help the NHS through the most challenging period in its history.

In his first speech since the general election – and sharing a platform with the Prime Minister – Mr Stevens said:
“We’ve just come out of a general election debate that has once again confirmed a fundamental consensus between citizens of this country – on the unique importance of the NHS to the life of our nation, and as the embodiment of the promises we make to each other, across the generations.”

Referring to the NHS Five Year Forward View, he says: “Last Autumn the Health Service came together to chart a shared direction for our country’s NHS. “Patients groups, caring professionals, national leaders – uniting behind the NHS’ own ‘manifesto’ for the next five years. It’s a plan for better health, more personalised care, and a financially sustainable Health Service, which we’re now getting going on.”

Pointing to the realities of current service pressures, he argues that the Health Service is entering probably the most challenging period in its 67 year history. Alongside action this year to stabilise NHS finances, Stevens argues for a new partnership between the public, the government and the health service, involving concrete and sometimes controversial action on three broad fronts – prevention, care redesign, and efficiency linked to new investment.
On prevention, while life expectancy is at its highest ever, smoking still explains half of the inequality in life expectancy between rich and poor, binge drinking costs at least £5 billion a year, and junk food, sugary fizzy drinks and couch potato lifestyles are normalising obesity. So we need wide ranging action – as families, as the health service, as government, as industry, using the full range of tools at our disposal.

On care, Stevens argues the mission-critical task over the next five years is fundamental redesign of how services are provided, blurring the old boundaries between GP and hospital care, physical and mental health services, health and social care. One of the best ways of getting this personalisation and integration will be to give patients and their families more clout over the support they receive. He points to the first wave of 29 ‘Vanguard’ areas across England, covering five million patients, launched six weeks ago.

On efficiency, Stevens notes that the Economist Intelligence Unit has shown that we already have a lean and efficient health service compared with just about every other industrialised country. But we still have big quality and efficiency differences – between different parts of the country, between different hospitals, and between different local clinical commissioning groups.

On funding, Stevens says: “Just like every health service around the world with a growing population and an aging population, we’re going to need more funding, year by year, not just in 2020.
“We’ve said at least £8 billion a year in real terms by the end of the decade. But precisely how much, and with what phasing, will partly depend on how radical and how successful we are on prevention, on care redesign, and on our broader efficiency programme. And we’ll need careful and disciplined phasing of our ambition to expand services – be it improved cancer care, mental health, primary care, seven day services – all of which we want to do.”

Read full speech here: http://www.england.nhs.uk/2015/05/18/fit-for-future/

New review of Antimicrobial Copper in 2015 HHE book

“Copper touch surfaces in the clinical setting effectively reduce infection rates and save lives…”

“A plethora of evidence supports the use of copper-containing, non-porous solid materials in healthcare facilities as an effective method to reduce environmental contamination of high risk touch surfaces, contributing to a reduction in infection rates and at the same time circumventing bacterial resistance mechanisms, a main concern in infection control with antibiotics.”

Extracts from a new review on Antimicrobial Copper in the 2015 edition of ‘Hospital Healthcare Europe’ reference book.

Michael Oko FRCS(Ed) FRCS(ORL-HNS)
Consultant ENT Surgeon
150 Harley Street
London, UK

Citation: Antimicrobial copper surfaces, Hospital Healthcare Europe 2015, pages 135–138

View full magazine oneline here

“Superbugs to kill more than cancer by 2050”

VETOBAC Copper patient bedroom
VETOBAC Copper patient bedroom

We are nearing the scenario of “bad bugs and no drugs”.

Antimicrobial Resistance is a growing problem. See this BBC article on the publication of the study by the AMR Review.

A significant proportion of infection is spread by touch.
Flu studies show that a contaminated hand spreads pathogens to the next seven surfaces touched.
We humans are a very tactile species, touching on average 30 items per minute. Just consider how many touch surfaces in a busy clinical environment are touched every hour, let alone every day, and by many different people.

We need to up our game, and improve our “hotspot” touch surfaces in high-risk areas. Using copper or copper-alloy materials is a simple way to tackle this problem, without contributing to Antimicrobial Resistance.

Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) is a key mechanism for bacteria acquiring or conferring antimicrobial resistance in the environment. HGT is proven to occur on clinical touch surfaces, yet does not happen on copper materials.

Have a look at the work by Prof. Keevil and his team at Southampton University; pathogens (bacteria, viruses, yeasts & fungi) are not only killed rapidly on copper and copper-alloy materials but pathogenic DNA/RNA is also destroyed within seconds of contact with copper.

E.g. murine norovirus: 10,000 to zero in four minutes on copper, and DNA destruction evident within 30 seconds.

VRE: 10 million to zero in ten minutes on copper, under realistic indoor conditions

Copper is effective 24/7, between cleans and between touches.
At ambient temperature and humidity too, without the need for costly retraining of healthcare workers or special maintenance.

Key healthcare watchdogs such as EPIC3: National Evidence-Based Guidelines for Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infections in NHS Hospitals in England  (see “Emerging Technology” in section 2.2 “Hospital Environmental Hygiene”) have recommended copper touch surfaces in their ‘top emerging technologies to watch.’ Other horizon-scanners including SHTG, ECRI Institute, AHRQ and CNESH have also endorsed Antimicrobial Copper touch surfaces in this way.

What are you going to do differently this year?
Want a simple way to reduce bioburden, the risk of HCAIs and limit the spread & development of Antimicrobial Resistance?
Go on, make a difference.
VETOBAC copper patient bathroom
VETOBAC copper patient bathroom